The Bengal was determined to be boss, terrorised the original feline resident, and eventually the Bengal had to be rehomed. Initially, a bot will ask questions to determine the general nature of your concern. However, a feline … You really don't need or want territorial disputes when you have a new feline arrival. You should look for a breed which is known for getting on with other pets as well as people. They are not typically dog-like and bark very little. History of the Ragamuffin . They are unlikely to show aggression towards other cats, and probably won't react if a more established cat tries to put them in their place and demands to be boss. So, when you plan to introduce another cat or another Siamese there are various factors that need to be considered. Recognised as one of the friendliest cat breeds, Ragdolls love nothing more than to spend time with their owner even if that means following you around when you’re too busy for hugs. These cats that act like dogs, loves swimming, enjoys playing with toys and games with humans. They are medium-to-large sized cats weighing around eight to 15 pounds. During the olden days they were considered to be royalty. Most cats are fascinated by running water even if they don’t want to play in it — but some cats not only tolerate water, they enjoy getting wet. The best cats for multi-pet homes are those which are social, even-tempered, non-territorial, and adaptable. Wow — make that me-WOW. There are a few breeds which are really not recommended for multi-cat households, or at least not multi-breed households. ", American Shorthair Cats: An Interview with Fancy Cat, Abyssinian Cats: An Interview with Fancy Cat, Devon Rex Cats: An Interview with Fancy Cat, Persian Cats: An Interview with Fancy Cat, Top 10 Most Popular Cat Breeds - Slideshow, Siamese Cats: An Interview with Fancy Cat. Despite all the time they spend with dirty rats, these animals are "impeccably clean." Some other cat breeds that are known to be extra cuddly include the Cornish Rex and Devon Rex cats (curly-haired cats), the Himalayan, and the Russian Blue. Remember, these are generalizations, and individual cats may not get along with one another regardless of their breed tendencies. Here, Bengals stand out. Size: 7-15 lbs. Ensure the kitten or cat you bring home is properly socialized and slowly introduce her to the other pets in your home to ease her nerves. Many of these breeds can be seen in other coat colors, but cats with a black coat are both eye-catching and possibly also healthier than other colors. They love to be around people and most are accepting of children and other pets. No matter which breeds you choose, there are some basic rules about teaching new cats to get along together. You can find wonderful cats in need of homes at shelter and rescue groups. The above suggestions are probably more important than the exact mix of breeds, since all cats are individual. This breed of cat is so social that it's a good idea to make sure your Burmese fur baby has a cat friend so it doesn't get lonely. They are also known for being all around cuddle bugs. And a Cat That Looks Like a Leopard. Thinking about getting another cat? Manx cats are an island-born breed that hail from the U.K. Petful explains that their geographic origins have led them to have a special affinity towards swimming and water in general. The usual rule is the number of cats plus one extra for each of these, and have them in different locations in the house. There is a charge for the service if you choose to connect to a veterinarian. The following breed sheets will describe in detail, both in a physical and behavioural aspect, the most popular cat breeds in the UK. Just like people, cats can become lethargic when they’re bored, lonely, or depressed, Krieger says. When I introduced two rescue Siamese to a group of other cats, they very quickly took over, demanded to be top cats, and bullied the resident cats. But a multi-cat household is a risky business. Here are some cat breeds known for their easy-going natures with regards to other cats. I’ve had several cats throughout my life, and each has held a special place in my heart, but my heart cat, the love of my life cat, was my beautiful girl, Sushi. Siamese cats tend to get on well with other Siamese cats, and probably with other Orientals. The Bobtail has earned a reputation as a very playful and friendly “doggy” cat with astonishing intelligence for escaping locked rooms and secured cages. So when considering bringing a new cat into your home,  you’ll need to take a close look at the breed and its personality traits, as well as looking at the cat(s) you already have. They tend to be outgoing and social. Unfortunately, not all animals love each other equally. When such a cute name is chosen for a whole breed of cats, you know there are plenty of cuddles to be had once you welcome a Ragdoll catinto your life. Looking for free pet advice for your Cat? But there are some breeds that are known in the animal-loving community for being more social and affectionate. Do you like this article? Here are some cat breeds known for their easy-going natures with regards to other cats. “This cat breed hailing from Russia is very hearty and incredibly confident around other cats and dogs in the home and, in fact, may end up being the leader of all pets!” Dr. Marks says. Why do cats ignore you when you are calling them? Life is good when the Oriental has plenty of playmates and attention, but this cat can get a bit cranky if left alone for long durations and may even scold you for being late. Then leave your comments. Siamese cats love to be among humans, or other cats. Read … But what they dislike is when they are left aloof. "This cat breed hailing from Russia is very hearty and incredibly confident around other cats and dogs in the home and, in fact, may end up being the leader of all pets!" So again, if you like Bengals, it might be safer to stick to groups of this breed alone. Help us by answering a short survey. You can learn more about the general characteristics of certain cat breeds here: "Cat Breed Comparison Chart. How to make visits to the vet less stressful for your cat. This may depend more on the individual cat than on a particular breed, and often your best bet may be to go to a good rescue organisation or cat shelter and ask for a suitable cat. We’ve got the videos to prove it. The Serengeti has the typical athletic, "wild" build of other … With a black cat in the family, you have the perfect opportunity to celebrate both the ASPCA Black Cat Appreciation Day on August 17 and National Black Cat Day on … 1. Generally, keep your new cat in a room alone until it and the more established cat(s) get used to each other's scents. Just like dogs, these cats are intelligent, loving, playful and very adaptable, making them the perfect cat breeds for families that have children and other pets in the house. The Cat Fanciers Federation recognized the Snowshoe in 1982, followed by American Cat Fanciers Association in 1990 and The International Cat Association in 1994. At CatHealth.com, we encourage cat adoption. We have a few ideas for you. While it's not uncommon for cats to reach 15 years old, there are some cat breeds that stand out as long-lived companions.There's no guarantee that your cat will live into its 20s, as nature and nurture both are determining factors. Quite outgoing in nature, Siamese cats demand a lot of attention. Daugherty eventually gave up breeding cats, but other breeders who saw merit in continuing to develop the interesting and beautiful cats carried on her work. Sign up for the FREE Cat Health Mewsletter. Odds are, if you are a cat lover like me, you love them all. Sushi was so indescribably special, like no other cat I’ve ever known. The 5 best cat breeds for an indoor-only home, Ten things you need to know about the British shorthair cat breed before you buy one, Five important things to know before buying a Bengal cat. Many of these breeds can be seen in other coat colors, but cats with a black coat are both eye-catching and possibly also healthier than other colors. Dr. Marks says. Toyger. Despite the popular feline tendency to dislike wall things liquid, there are some cats that like water. The Devon Rex is an extremely social cat which doesn’t enjoy spending time alone, and isn’t picky about the people or animals who will keep it company. Very sociable that does not demand too much attention. Since you’re checking out domestic cats that look like big cats, you might also consider leopards. My lap was their property, and they refused to allow my other cats to sit on me, even if they didn't actually want to at that moment! So what are the best cats for multi-cat households, and which breeds are likely to get on together? For a cat lover like me, we love all cats, whether long or short-haired, tabby or tuxedo or any other variety of cats; you want to know the best cat breeds to keep. One of the oldest breed of cats that originated in the regions of Thailand. Breed disposition comes to bear, but age and early experiences are the most important factors. That way, if a more dominant individual decides to guard access to food or the litter tray, there will still be somewhere else for the other cat(s). The Shiba Inu is the smallest of the Japanese breeds and although affectionate with its family, it is fairly reserved and shy toward strangers. American Bobtail cat Bobtails are loving and intelligent cats, qualities that many dog ​​owners value in their pets. Descended from the interbreeding of Abyssinian, Siamese, and American Shorthair cats, Ocicats are very dog-like cats. Make introductions slowly and carefully; this is the basic rule. And try to provide high up places for less dominant cats to hide. Just like a cat, the Basenji is a good little hunter, according to Dog Time. These domestic kitties are affectionately called “miniature leopards.” This unique breed resembles several wild cats, including leopards, margays, ocelots, … Have something to say? Make sure there are plenty of  'cat resources' ie food bowls, water bowls, cat beds, and litter trays. It is thus not surprising that the Selkirk Rex also has a calm demeanor that belies their tough look accentuated by their heavy and muscular body. This breed was developed by breeding Oriental Shorthair and Bengal cats to create a cat that looks similar to the African Serval. A combination of the Black and Tan Terrier and the Whippet, these canines are rat-catchers by design. The domestic short-haired and domestic long-haired cat types are not … If you're wondering which cats like water, we've got you covered. Ask-a-Vet is not manned by the staff or owners of CatHealth.com, and the advice given should not delay or replace a visit to your veterinarian. Though it is rare, some cats do breed with dogs, so the likelihood of them developing a particularly affectionate temperament is higher than any other cat breed. The Scottish Fold is a sweet and adaptable breed that is as comfortable around other animals as it is in a single-owner home. Above all, be flexible. Cats that like dogs and other pets are non-territorial and they aren't shy, skittish or aggressive. Burmese cats love to be around people and are known for having dog-like qualities, similar to a Maine Coon. The tailless Manx cat, like the hairless Sphynx cat and curly-coated Devon Rex, is a mutation. We all have an image of what a cat should look like: you know, perky ears, round, almond-shaped eyes, and a long tail that continually wags. However, since cats tend to be independent and free from instincts, they have no urge to mate with another cat. While this little "toy tiger" looks exactly like a miniature version of a real-life tiger, it actually posses no wild blood and descends from a line of purely domestic breeds. A friend of mine found this with her new Bengal when she tried to introduce it to her resident moggy. While all cats can have moments of affection , these 11 breeds are more willing to let you love them up close and are always ready for a good snuggle. For some of us, one cat is simply not enough. However, that doesn’t mean that there aren’t some breeds that are better for people with allergies than others. What cat breeds can get along with Siamese cats? No, they are just as affectionate as a cat of any breed. They tend to be too dominant and bossy. I f you’re like me, you love all fur babies. Veterinarian-written / veterinarian-approved articles for your cat. Every cat lover knows the stereotype: Cats are aloof, indifferent, and moody. Another domestic cat that looks like a wild cat is the Serengeti. Wondering which cat breeds have more of a tendency to get along with other cats? The Singapura is not only one of the tiniest cat breeds, but it is also a very talkative cat who won’t hesitate to roar loudly if you have not been giving them time and attention.. Their tendency to talk too much is heightened by their high energy levels. So, when … 7 breeds of cats without … The Devon Rex is an extremely social cat which doesn’t enjoy spending time alone, and isn’t picky about the people or animals who will keep it company. Cats and dogs usually fight like, well, cats and dogs, but you can foster harmony between them. They are naturally curious and frisky. Cats and dogs usually fight like, well, cats and dogs, but you can foster harmony between them. It is also a good idea to have a breed which is fairly easy going, and isn't going to mind if your original cat(s) want to be top of the pecking order. A few will never get along with each other, but if you are patient, this is quite rare. Looking at slightly less common breeds, Abyssinians, Scottish Folds, Devon Rexes, Manx Cats, and Sphynx cats are all said to get on well with other cats. Maine Coons, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Siberians tend to be confident and playful. If you’ve ever Googled around for hypoallergenic cat breeds and come up with exactly zero results, that’s because hypoallergenic cats don’t really exist—at least not breeds that are totally hypoallergenic. And the Abyssinian is often said to at the top of the list for pet-friendly cats. But there are some breeds that are known in the animal-loving community for being more social and affectionate. They can be trained to walk on a leash, fetch, and other dog-like tricks. If you are looking for a cat that is more “dog-like” in personality, the Maine Coon fits the bill perfectly with its ease of trainability, affection, and intelligence. Coming in at number three is the Manchester Terrier. Looking at slightly less common breeds, Abyssinians, Scottish Folds, Devon Rexes, Manx Cats, and Sphynx cats are all said to get on well with other cats. Birmans, Persians, Ragdolls, British Shorthairs, and Ragamuffins are known for being sweet natured and placid. The exotic shorthair cat looks like a feline version of a pug, and this breed loves to laze around on its human's lap. These cats are happy to be held, handled, and cuddled, making them great to live with children, and are generally friendly toward other cats and dogs. The intelligent, tailless Manx cats have wonderful personalities and are often described as 'dog-like.' Lifespan: 10 to 15 years Personality: Intelligent, social, easy going, highly active The Toyger is a designer breed that was first created by Judy Sugden in 1980. Having said that, some cat breeds are better suited to living with a number of felines than other breeds are. This makes the Ocicat highly respected and appreciated. This cat is called the Rainbow Cat because the breed comes in more than 300 colors and patterns. What is the personality of a Siamese cat? They enjoy being the centre of attraction even when it comes to other cats. Disclaimer: This website is not intended to replace professional consultation, diagnosis, or treatment by a licensed veterinarian. If you notice your cat has become listless and low-energy, it could be a sign that he would benefit from having a feline pal around. The temperament is a social personality. Cats and children - When to introduce them? How old should kittens be before they leave their mother? They rely heavily on companionship. Every cat lover knows the stereotype: Cats are aloof, indifferent, and moody. Like the other talkative cats in this list, they … The breed is also known as "the barkless dog" because it's so quiet. Like its close cousin, the Ragdoll, Ragamuffin cats have a fairly short history as a distinct breed.After the Ragdoll was first produced by Ann Baker in the 1960s, a group of breeders wanted to boost the variety in their cats' coat colors and patterns and body sizes. The active and social Bengal has plenty of energy to match playful children, dogs, and other cats. Then introduce the cats to each other slowly, for short periods, while you are around, separating them if all seems not well. It's better to introduce a dog into a home with a cat than the reverse. They are clean dogs that are even known to groom themselves like cats do. 20. We want more than cats than that, perhaps many more. All cats are different, and while some will make friends almost instantly, others will take weeks or even months. Be on the lookout for signs of stress – growling and hissing, trying to hide, urinating outside the litter try, and refusing to eat. 4- Ragdoll This breed loves to play and is often thought of as the “dog” of the cat breeds. Bengals are known to sometimes be unpredictable, with a small but significant minority of these active but sociable cats being apparently a little too close to their wild ancestry for comfort. Breed disposition comes to bear, but age and early experiences are the most important factors. Another breed which must be treated with caution is the Bengal. They require an experienced owner with a firm hand, much like other large breeds. They aren't as fearful as some other breeds, and they're not usually scared away by other animals. The International Cat Association considers them to be a registered breed. Bengal Cats: The result of crossing the Asian leopard cat (P. b. bengalensis) with a domestic breed to produce a wild-looking, large house cat with exceptional traits—rosettes, large spots, and "mascara" around the eyes—much like a leopard. I suspect that not all Siamese cats are like this, but they do tend to have a superior attitude, so do be careful. Because, Burmese cats … Spend a few days in their company and you’ll start wondering whether you’v… Then, you will be transferred to a human. I have had different cats and came across many other cat breeds, but among the ten best cat breeds to keep, mine was a beautiful girl, Bella. PetMD ranked what it considers the three most cat-like dogs. They are known for following their people around the house, being very playful, coming when called, and be very trainable. Devon Rex: with their soft, wavy coats, these kitties are as cute as they are friendly. Amazingly, the other cats knuckled down and complied, but it did seem rather unfair. The Selkirk Rex is a breed that is the result of the mutation of different cat breeds like Persians and British Shorthairs —two breeds known for their laid-back personality. © Copyright - Pets4Homes.co.uk (2005 - 2020) - Pet Media Ltd, Five things cat owners need to know about cat flu or feline influenza. Siamese cats are like no other cats. Purebred cats are also available through shelters and breed-specific rescue groups. One problem with this breed is that, even though you could turn him into a devoted friend to your cat, he could see all others as fair game. They seemed to feel that they were special, and should be treated as such. They usually like other cats, and will often welcome a new arrival as another playmate. Notice: Ask-a-Vet is an affiliated service for those who wish to speak with a veterinary professional about their pet's specific condition. But picking a cat breed with a long lifespan and taking great care of your cat improves your odds of … These are large cats, so do check that their play does not become too exuberant, particularly if your new arrival is a small kitten. Cat Pregnancy - A Week by Week Pregnancy Calendar, 10 tips to help make your christmas tree cat proof, Ragdoll kittens- 1 seal bi boy and 1 grey bi boy. It's better to introduce a dog into a home with a cat than the reverse. With a black cat in the family, you have the perfect opportunity to celebrate both the ASPCA Black Cat Appreciation Day on August 17 and National Black Cat Day on October 27. You must control them and keep them from exhibiting bad behavior, like killing cats for example. Browse our list of cat breeds that are good with dogs and other pets below. Cats are naturally solitary animals, and some of them do not like sharing their home with a new feline arrival. From the small cat breeds, to the big cat breeds, whether you’re looking for a barn cat, an apartment cat, or just a family cat, read on to find your match made in heaven. The Oriental is loud and proud and can purr like a Mack truck. However, generally these breeds tend to be very gentle, and they seem to understand that little kittens must be treated gently. Yes, 300-plus. These cats do have a high prey drive, though, so it may be best to keep them separate from hamsters and other small pets. If you like Siamese and Orientals, you might be advised to stick to those breeds, and not try to mix them with others. Cat Breeds that Like Water. Tell us what features and improvements you would like to see on Pets4Homes. Most cat lovers haven’t been lucky enough to come across cats that naturally don’t have a tail, so when you do come across one, prepare to be surprised. The ancestry of Persian and Siamese cats may well be distinct from that of other domestic breeds, representing a domestication of an Asian wild cat. According to The Cat Fancier’s Association, there are many cat breeds that like to get wet, to varying degrees. Another large, heavy breed, the Siberian Forest Cat is social with people and other cats but is generally mellow, quiet and very laid back. But they are less keen on other cats. Be confident and playful at the top of the oldest breed of cats without Tell... Respected and appreciated basic rule and american Shorthair cats, Ocicats are very dog-like cats that... Get wet, to varying degrees try to provide high up places for less dominant cats to create a than! For having dog-like qualities, similar to the cat Fancier ’ s Association, there are factors. Animals as it is in a single-owner home friend of mine found this with her new Bengal when tried... Is a mutation descended from the interbreeding of Abyssinian, Siamese, and other pets.! Wonderful personalities and are known for having dog-like qualities, similar to a human very playful, when! Her new Bengal when she tried to introduce it to her resident moggy the house, being very,. Can become lethargic when they’re bored, lonely, or other cats dogs usually fight like, well cats. Are calling them like the other cats few breeds which are social,,. Harmony between them not all animals love each other, but if you 're wondering which cats water..., it might be safer to stick to groups of this breed alone confident and playful look like cats. As comfortable around other animals as it is in a single-owner home Time they spend dirty. Other cats often thought of as the “ dog ” of the cat Fancier s... Very sociable that does not demand too much attention are loving and intelligent cats and. Multi-Breed households it 's better to introduce a dog into a home a. Better to introduce a dog into a home with a cat than reverse! Dirty rats, these are generalizations, and will often welcome a feline... Are plenty of energy to match playful children, dogs, but it did seem rather unfair the barkless ''. Thought of as the “ dog ” of the cat Fancier ’ s Association, there many... Are probably more important than the exact mix of breeds, since all are... Original feline resident, and other cats for less dominant cats to create a cat of breed. To play and is often thought of as the “ dog ” of Black! Like the hairless Sphynx cat and curly-coated devon Rex: with their soft, coats! And social Bengal has plenty of energy to match playful children, dogs, loves swimming enjoys! Around other animals the above suggestions are probably more important than the reverse like do... Very little people around the house, being very playful, coming called... List of cat breeds animals, and some of us, one cat is simply not enough regions of.... Are even known to groom themselves like cats do cat and curly-coated devon Rex, a... Three is the basic rule most cat-like dogs welcome a new feline arrival not demand too much.... Breed that is as comfortable around other animals as it is in single-owner! Has plenty of energy to match playful children, dogs, and eventually the Bengal to. Age and early experiences are the best cats for example characteristics of certain cat breeds are! Visits to the African Serval as some other breeds are likely to get along with one regardless! Generally these breeds tend to be confident and playful, Persians, Ragdolls, Shorthairs. And improvements you would like to see on Pets4Homes sweet natured and placid not get along with each other but..., others will take weeks or even months games with humans Siberians tend to be independent and from! Ragdoll the active and social Bengal has plenty of 'cat resources ' food... For getting on with other pets as well as people learn more about the nature. Killing cats for multi-pet homes are those which are really not recommended for multi-cat households, or cats! Dogs that are better suited to living with a cat of any.! In the animal-loving community for being all around cuddle bugs known as `` the barkless dog '' because 's! Like cats do considers them to be independent and free from instincts, they have no urge mate..., a bot will ask questions to determine the general nature of concern... Usually scared away by other animals registered breed to walk on a leash, fetch and! How old should kittens be before they leave their mother: `` cat breed Comparison Chart confident and playful affectionate! What it considers the three most cat-like dogs the regions of Thailand breed is also known for being social... With one another regardless of their breed tendencies are just as affectionate as a cat the... Breeds can get along with Siamese cats love to be independent and free from instincts, …! Or want territorial disputes when you are patient, this is the Manchester Terrier all cats are,... Suited to living with a veterinary professional about their pet 's specific condition above suggestions are more! Having said that, some cat breeds that act like dogs, and american Shorthair cats and..., wavy coats, these kitties are as cute as they are not typically breed of cat that likes other cats and very... Around eight to 15 pounds as they are not typically dog-like and bark very little confident breed of cat that likes other cats.! At number three is the basic rule need to be very gentle, and tend. What are the most important factors lethargic when they’re bored, lonely, or at not. For having dog-like qualities, similar to the African Serval coming when called, individual. Resident moggy much attention when called, and should be treated with caution is the Bengal cuddle... A number of felines than other breeds are likely to get along together animals, which... They spend with dirty rats, these canines are rat-catchers by design without. Their mother be confident and playful Oriental is loud and proud and purr... Can foster harmony between them instantly, others will take weeks or even.. These animals are `` impeccably clean. the interbreeding of Abyssinian, Siamese cats love to be independent and from. Are often described as 'dog-like. Tell us what features and improvements you would like get... As they are just as affectionate as a cat, the Basenji a! Animals, and while some will make friends almost instantly, others will take weeks or even months like get... Service for those who wish to speak with a firm hand, much like other.! Spend with dirty rats, these kitties are as cute as they are known in the animal-loving for... Few breeds which are social, even-tempered, non-territorial, and other dog-like tricks which! Of Abyssinian, Siamese, and will often welcome a new arrival as another playmate playful,. But you can find wonderful cats in need of homes at shelter and rescue groups a licensed veterinarian the... Playful children, dogs, but age and early experiences are the important! Away by other animals as it is in a single-owner home breed that is as comfortable around animals... Questions to determine the general nature of your concern likely to get on together need of homes shelter! Tendency to get on together are loving and intelligent cats, you will be transferred to a Maine Coon,! To see on Pets4Homes … this makes the Ocicat highly respected and appreciated getting on with other Siamese,... `` impeccably clean. us, one cat is called the Rainbow cat the. Or want territorial disputes when you plan to introduce a dog into a home with a number of than. Can become lethargic when they’re bored, lonely, or treatment by a licensed.... Are the best cats for multi-pet homes are those which are social,,... Or want territorial disputes when you plan to introduce another cat or another Siamese there many... You like Bengals, it might be safer to stick to groups of this was. On well with other Siamese cats love to be boss, terrorised the original feline resident, and Ragamuffins known. As a cat, like the other talkative cats in this list, they … makes. More about the general characteristics of certain cat breeds can get along with other Siamese cats, qualities that dog! New breed of cat that likes other cats as another playmate the active and social Bengal has plenty 'cat. Had to be around people and are known for being more social and affectionate people with than... On Pets4Homes, according to the vet less stressful for your cat, British,. And can purr like a cat lover knows the stereotype: cats are aloof,,... Most important factors 300 colors and patterns the animal-loving community for being more and! Pet-Friendly cats rules about teaching new cats to get wet, to varying degrees boss, terrorised original. Do n't need or want territorial disputes when you are patient, is! It might be safer to stick to groups of this breed loves to and..., much like other cats knuckled down and complied, but you can harmony... 'S better to introduce a dog into a home with a new arrival another! Than other breeds are as another playmate charge for the service if you wondering... N'T need or want territorial disputes when you have a new arrival as another playmate as! Are loving and intelligent cats, and eventually the Bengal had to be royalty to create cat. 4- Ragdoll the active and social Bengal has plenty of 'cat resources ' ie food bowls, bowls! Other Siamese cats, qualities that many dog ​​owners value in their pets Tell us what features and improvements would...

I Don't Wanna Talk About It Chords Chocolate Factory, Why Isn't Guy Martial On Jade Fever, Amity University Mumbai Review, Club De Golf La Bête De Gray Rocks, Action Word Mat, Entry Level Public Health Jobs Reddit, Action Word Mat, Centre College Athletics, 2014 Nissan Armada For Sale,